乌头翁Taiwan bulbul

乌头翁
界: 动物界 Animalia
门: 脊索动物门 Chordata
纲: 鸟纲 Aves
目: 雀形目 Passeriformes
科: 鹎科 Pycnonotidae
属: 鹎属 Pycnonotus
种: 乌头翁 P. taivanus
        (Styan, 1893)
分布: 中国台湾
鸟类
物种概述Summary
中文名:乌头翁(拼音:wū tóu wēng);
英文名:Taiwan bulbul;
学名:Pycnonotus taivanus
乌头翁,又名台湾鹎,为台湾特有种,只分布在当地东部和南部。虽然在某些地区相当普遍,此鸟种仍被列为易危,因栖地的破坏和同属鸟种白头翁杂交造成数量减少,此两鸟种分布在某些地区重叠,且有白头翁因宗教因素被放生至乌头翁栖地。乌头翁为台东县县鸟。
世界自然保护联盟红色名录列为:易危(VU)

体长: 19厘米

身高:

体重:

生命:

食性: 杂食性

繁殖: 每窝产卵5-6枚

习性: 小群活动

分布: 中国台湾

外形特征Description

乌头翁头尾长19厘米。 乌头翁头顶冠及髭纹黑色;下颚基部有一橙色小点斑;上体橄榄色,两翼及尾褐色,边缘橄榄黄色;下体近白,胸灰,两胁偏褐。 头顶和枕黑色、眼先及耳羽白而带银皮黄色、喉白、髭纹呈黑色、近下嘴基部具一小形橙红点斑、后颈浅土褐色,背、肩、小覆羽以及腰羽概污灰褐,微缀;大覆羽、飞羽和尾羽均暗褐,外缘以鲜橄榄黄,下体皮黄白,胁和覆腿羽染以灰褐色,尾下覆羽具橄榄色羽缘;虹膜-深褐,嘴-黑色,脚-黑色。

生态习性Ecological Habit

乌头翁主要栖息在平地至中海拔的灌欉、次生林地、丘陵地、农耕地及林园,通常2-3只聚集成群活动于灌木林或果树林,主要栖息于河流、湖泊、水库、水塘等水域岸边,也栖息于农田、湿草原、沼泽等湿地,有时还栖于水域附近的居民点和公园。常单独成对或呈3-5只的小群活动,迁徙期间也见成10多只至20余只的大群。
大多数的乌头翁都是以昆虫和其幼虫、果实、浆果或种籽等杂食性为主,有的还会以漕泾作为自己的食物,它们会在飞行中捕捉昆虫。

生长繁殖Growth and Breed

乌头翁繁殖期为每年的3-7月份,繁殖期间甚为活跃,常站在树梢高声鸣叫,或雌雄鸟在树冠与花丛间相互追逐、飞舞和嬉戏。通常营巢于灌丛、竹丛和果树等低矮树上,巢多置于灌木或竹丛枝叉间。每窝产卵通常为5-6枚,但也有每窝少至4枚和多至7枚的。孵化期12天。

地理分布Distribution

乌头翁,又名台湾鹎,为台湾特有种,只分布在当地东部和南部。

乌头翁的英文介绍 Introduction

The Styan's bulbul or Taiwan bulbul (Pycnonotus taivanus) is an endemic species of bulbul that lives in eastern and southern Taiwan. Though common in some areas, it has been listed as a species vulnerable to extinction. Its decline has been caused by habitat destruction and hybridisation with the closely related Chinese or light-vented bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis; the two species ranges overlap in several areas, partly because birds of the latter species have been released for Buddhist ceremonies. The species has already become extinct in Yilan County.
The Styan's bulbul has a very similar appearance to the light-vented bulbul, but they differ in the patterns on the head. The Styan's bulbul has a completely black crown with white feathers around its eye, except for a black moustachial stripe below the beak. Hybrids are intermediate between the two species, with the moustachial stripe and white feathers around the eye, but the white feathers extend behind the crown.
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